It's base unit, the Sukhoi Su-17, is a Soviet attack aircraft developed from the Sukhoi Su-7 fighter-bomber. It enjoyed a long career in Soviet, later Russian, service and was widely exported to communist and Middle Eastern air forces, under names Su-20 and Su-22.
The Su-22 was designed as a high speed, medium range, low level ground attack/recce aircraft. The main design difference between the two being that the Su-22 was never intended for carrier operations and from the outset had a limited air-to-air capability.
Although its origin can be traced back to the basic Su-7 aircraft of the 1950’s, the design was continuously developed emerging as the variable geometry Su-17/22, the most modern and powerful Warsaw Pact fighter bomber. The NATO code name for the type was “Fitter”.